Novice K-12 Online Teacher Support


Fox, E. (2024). Novice K-12 Online Teacher Support. Journal of Online Learning Research, 10(1), 15-48.


The purpose of this study was to explore how novice online K-12 teachers in Arizona described the influence of organizational, interpersonal, and intrapersonal leader support on their psychological needs. To address the study purpose the author used qualitative descriptive design; using questionnaires and semi-structured interviews, the study sample included 39 novice K-12 online teachers in Arizona. The author used Support for Teachers’ Psychological Needs (STPN) as the theoretical framework. Using Reflexive Thematic Analysis (RTA), nine themes emerged from the data that provide insight into specific leader supports in the K-12 online setting. Many organizational, interpersonal, and intrapersonal supports mimic brick-and-mortar findings. However, new supports were uncovered such as, teacher-to-student organizational supports and online communication best-practices. Recommendations included three practical ways that K-12 online leaders can increase competence, autonomy, and relatedness among their staff. This research adds to the existing body of work surrounding supports for teachers’ psychological needs by expanding its focus to the online K-12 setting. Additionally, this research was unique for its focus on novice teachers as defined by having less than 4 years of experience in the K-12 online setting.


  • Fox, Evelyn

Reference Type



  • Online teaching