Michigan’s K-12 Virtual Learning Effectiveness Report, 2022-23


Freidhoff, J. R., DeBruler, K., Cuccolo, K., & Green, C. (2024). Michigan’s k-12 virtual learning effectiveness report 2022-23. Michigan Virtual. https://michiganvirtual.org/research/publications/michigans-k-12-virtual-learning-effectiveness-report-2022-23/


Based on pupil completion and performance data reported by public schools to the Michigan Department of Education and the Center for Educational Performance and Information, this report highlights 2022-23 enrollment totals, completion rates, and the overall impact of virtual courses on K-12 pupils. Detailed findings are presented in sections on schools, courses, and students, as well as over 80 data tables at the end of the report.

About 12% of all K-12 students in the state—over 159,000 students—took virtual courses in 2022-23. These students generated over 1 million virtual course enrollments and were present in 68% of Michigan public school districts. Schools with part-time virtual learners were responsible for most of virtual enrollments. Close to 70% of the virtual enrollments came from high school students, and the most highly enrolled in virtual courses were those required for high school graduation. Sixty-three percent of the virtual enrollments were from students who were in poverty. The overall pass rate for virtual courses (65%) was down four percentage points from the prior year but remained higher than pre-pandemic levels.


  • Cuccolo, Kelly
  • DeBruler, Kristen
  • Friedhoff, Joseph R.
  • Green, Christa

Reference Type



  • Effectiveness report
  • Michigan