Examination of the Presence + Experience Framework: Creating an Online Course for Pre-service Teachers Learning to Teach Online


Hall, J., Wang, Q. & Lei, J. (2023). Examination of the presence + experience framework: Creating an online course for pre-service teachers learning to teach online. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 31(1), 89-122. https://www.learntechlib.org/primary/p/221808/


Preparing future teachers with virtual teaching competencies that can be applied to blended or fully online settings has long challenged teacher education programs. The need for this preparation has been made increasingly apparent by global events, advances in technology, and the shifting landscape of K–12 education. Therefore, this study examined the efficacy of a fully online, 10-day course aimed at preparing teacher candidates for virtual teaching. The course design was based upon the Presence + Experience framework—an instructional design model grounded in the community of inquiry and experiential learning theory. Two iterations of the course were implemented, and 250 pre-service teachers participated by completing the course and responding to a 32-item pre- and post-survey that measured their technological, pedagogical, content knowledge. A 2 x 2 x 2 x 7 mixed MANOVA was conducted, and results indicated the course design had a statistically significant impact on pre-service teachers’ technological, pedagogical, content knowledge (F = 230.43, df = 249, p < 0.001, η2 = 0.484). The Presence + Experience framework may thus be a worthwhile model for others seeking to promote future educators’ online competencies. Design recommendations for applying the framework and directions for future research are shared.


  • Hall, Jacob
  • Lei, Jing
  • Wang, Qui

Reference Type



  • Instructional design